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清理ACT寫作語法結構的真確方式

2017/5/2 15:57:10來源:新航道作者:新航道

摘要:在中國很多考生會用中式英語代替我發掌握的部分,ACT寫作是分析性寫作,對考生語言表達的邏輯性和精準性有一定要求,避免中式的表達方式尤其的重要,如何避免呢?

  在中國很多考生會用中式英語代替我發掌握的部分,ACT寫作是分析性寫作,對考生語言表達的邏輯性和精準性有一定要求,避免中式的表達方式尤其的重要,如何避免呢?

  強詞和弱詞

  對于分析性寫作而言,英文呈現出一種較客觀的表達,作文中“強詞”相對較多,“弱詞”相對較少。何為強詞?就是指具有實質意義指向的詞,例如book, planet, card等。弱詞具有主觀性,或表意范圍比較模糊,例如interesting, useful, absolutely等,多為形容詞或副詞,因為感覺是因人而異的。當然,這兩個概念不是絕對的,有的詞有時是強詞,有時是弱詞,取決于語境。

  那么應怎樣處理強詞和弱詞?首先,分析性寫作語言表達應比較客觀,既然客觀,“事實”勝于“雄辯”。也就是說,強詞多于弱詞,在論證中盡量避免過多的主觀性價值判斷的表達,More details speak louder than adjectives.

  對于一個issue,我們的立場是主觀的,分析性寫作的目的就是從不同角度支持我們的立場,使之具有說服力。

  主語的選擇

  表達自己的觀點時,不一定要用I think,I suppose等等“我”做主語,論則過程可以選用無靈主語的情況較多,即“沒有靈魂的”客觀事物,但不絕對。例如官網Intelligent machine這道樣題的5分和6分范文,開頭陳述觀點時分別是這樣表達的:

  Their concerns, though, are outweighed by the benefits these machines offer.(5分例文)

  Although the usage of machines increases efficiency and our standard of living, it detracts from the value of human life.(6分例文)

  為什么沒有用As far as I’m concerned, Personally甚至I think等等直接告訴別人“我認為”如何如何?因為ACT寫作屬于persuasive essay, 你既然要persuade others,肯定你的觀點,你討論的內容具有一定范圍的普適性,是客觀的。因此,同學們不必在寫作中處處用“我我我”,一切客觀陳述,講道理擺事實,你的作文質量會有一個質的小飛越。

  減少或者避免重視表達,很重要的一點就是要有邏輯感,對語法的結構要能夠了若指掌,下面分享一些寫作中語法結構的構成,希望能對大家有所幫助。

  1. 一個句子的主語和謂語動詞應該能夠反映句子中的最重要的意思。

  例如:

  The situation that resulted in my grandfather"s not being able to study engineering was that his father needed help on the farm.

  從意思上來分析,上面這句話需要表達的重要的概念是“grandfather"s not being able to study”,而在表達這個概念時,原句用的主語是situation,謂語動詞是was,不能強調需要表達的重點概念,可以改為下面這句話:

  My grandfather couldn"t study engineering because his father needed help on the farm.

  2. 避免頻繁使用“there be”結構。

  例如下面的句子:

  There were 25 cows on the farm that my grandfather had to milk every day. It was hard work for my grandfather.

  可以改為:

  My grandfather worked hard. He had to milk 25 cows on the farm every day.

  更簡潔的句式為:

  My grandfather worked hard milking 25 cows daily.

  3. 把從句改為短語或單詞。

  例如:

  Dairy cows were raised on the farm,which was located100 kilometers from the nearest university and was in an area that was remote.

  簡介的表達方式為:

  The dairy farm was located in a remote area, 100 kilometers tothe nearest university.

  4. 僅在需要強調賓語而不是主語的時候,才使用被動語態。

  例如:

  In the fall, not only did the cows have to be milked, but also the hay was mowed and stacked by my grandfather"s family.

  本句不夠簡潔的原因是本句的重心應該是“忙碌的家庭-my grandfather"s family”,而使用了被動語態后,仿佛重心變成了cows和hay。下面的表達方式是主動語態,相對來說更簡潔一些:

  In the fall, my grandfather"s family not only milked the cow but also mowed and stacked the hay.

  5. 用更為精確的一個動詞來代替動詞短語。

  例如下面這句話:

  My grandfather didn"t have time to stand around doing nothing with his school friends.

  Stand around doing nothing其實可以用一個動詞來表達,即loiter:

  My grandfather didn"t have time to loiter with his school friends.

  6. 有時兩句話的信息經過組合完全可以用一句話來簡練地表達。

  例如:

  Profits from the farm were not large. Sometimes they were too small to meet the expenses of running a farm. They were not sufficient to pay for a university degree.

  兩句話的信息可以合并為下面這句更為簡潔的句子:

  Profits from the farm were sometimes too small to meet operational expenses, let alone pay for a university degree.

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